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Map of Lower Egypt


  Lower Egypt  coincides with the Nile Delta, extending from Cairo (near Memphis) to the mouth of the Nile near Alexandria.

Lower Egypt includes the largest pyramid complexes in Egypt, located at Giza (near Memphis), and Saqqara. These, and numeous tomb complexes around the pyramids, date mainly from the earliest Dynasties (ca. 3000-2400 BC). 

Lower Egypt also includes many settlements from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods  in the Nile Delta region, including Tanis, Bubastis, and Naukratis. Linked to these were  towns in the Fayum Region west of the Nile between Saqqara and Oxyrhynchus, mainly settlements  from the  Graeco-Roman era (330 BC-AD 400).

An inscribed tablet from the Ptolemaic era found in 1799 at the mouth of the Nile, the Rosetta stone, led to the early 19th century decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphs, beginning the historic study of Egyptology.  

Fig.2: Map of Lower Egypt. Towns with preserved papyrus documents from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods are shown in red (after Baines and Malek 1988, and Grenfell et al. 1900).

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