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Lower Egypt coincides with the Nile Delta, extending from Cairo (near Memphis) to the mouth of the Nile near Alexandria.
Lower Egypt includes the largest pyramid complexes in Egypt, located at Giza (near Memphis), and Saqqara. These, and numeous tomb complexes around the pyramids, date mainly from the earliest Dynasties (ca. 3000-2400 BC).Lower Egypt also includes many settlements from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods in the Nile Delta region, including Tanis, Bubastis, and Naukratis. Linked to these were towns in the Fayum Region west of the Nile between Saqqara and Oxyrhynchus, mainly settlements from the Graeco-Roman era (330 BC-AD 400).
Fig.2: Map of Lower Egypt. Towns with preserved papyrus documents from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods are shown in red (after Baines and Malek 1988, and Grenfell et al. 1900).
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