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Saqqara, north area, including the 3rd Dyn. Pyramid of Djoser

Northern section of Saqqara, centering on the Pyramid of Djoser [A] (Google Earth).

Saqqara, located 30 km south of Cairo, functioned as the necropolis for Memphis, the Old Kingdom capital of Lower Egypt. Numerous monuments spread over an area of about 7.5 by 1.5 km include the well-preserved Step pyramid of Djoser in the northern part of Saqqara. Djoser's pramid (A) is the center of a large burial complex including a mortuary temple (B) and a number of  mastaba tombs (C),  whose above-ground rectangular form is named for the Arabic word for "bench".

The earliest burials at Saqqara are tombs of 1st Dynasty nobles, when the royal burial ground was still at Abydos. In the 2nd Dynasty, however, King Khasekhemwy (2690 BC) built a funeral monument at Saqqara.  Subsequently, the 3rd Dynasty ruler Djoser (2670 BC) built his burial complex there with what evolved into a step pyramid, resulting from six overlain mastaba tombs, designed by the vizier Imhotep.

Most 4th Dynasty royal tombs are located further north at the pyramid complex of Giza. In the 5th and 6th Dynasties, however, Saqqara was again used as the royal necropolis. The pyramid of the 5th Dynasty ruler Unas (F), built ca. 2350 BC, had a
Mortuary Temple with symbolic boat burials [G], and a Valley Temple on the east end of the causeway [H].  Unas was the first pharoah to have ritual writings inscribed on the inner chamber walls, known as Pyramid Texts. Further south is the pyramid complex of the 6th dynasty ruler Pepi I.

Other monuments in seem this image include the Pyramid of Userkof [D]; the Pyramid of Teti [E] and its associated burial complex;  the Pyramid of Sekhemkhet [I]; the 18th Dynasty Tomb of Horemheb [J];  the Great Enclosure [K]; and the Serepeum (L).

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