Guide to Archaeology on the Internet
Sites on sites
Archaeology and history share an attachment to visual evidence, making the
web a near-perfect medium for gathering primary information on these subjects.
Whether your aim is casual browsing or methodical research, the combination
of graphic images and multitudes of on-line sources and databases provides
fruitful grounds for exploration.
Sources are alphabeticized below in two basic groupings: a) general topics;
b) links by country. (Please note: reorganizing and adding to these pages
is an ongoing process: send email with your
suggestions for links.)
Anglo-Saxons and Dark Ages:
Archaeological Trust A source of Canterbury
site reports from 1985 onwards.
Current Archaeology Online
from the UK.
Gesiþas Home page of a British historical society
devoted to Anglo-Saxon England; with much interesting content.
The Old English epic, from the British Library and the
University of Kentucky.
Heritage Page Folklore, history, literature, and religion
of northern European cultures.
Tribes historical summary of the migrations of the
Franks, Angles, Saxons, Goths, Vandals, and Lombards at the end of the Roman
comprehensive site on Medieval literature and history, hosted at Georgetown
Map of Anglo-Saxon
England Showing major sites and boundaries; also from the
Georgetown University site.
Links at Rutgers University
Bede: The Conversion of England from a large gateway site
by Paul Halsall at Fordham University.
Pages The literature of Anglo-Saxon England,
by Cathy Ball at Georgetown University, Dept. of Linguistics.
Gentis Langobardum An early (7th c AD) source
on the Langobards.
Age Web A culture-by-culture summary of the post-Roman
world in Europe.
Secrets of the Norman
Invasion History, resistivity surveys, aerial photos, the
Bayeux Tapestry, and a few controversial theories.
Britain: Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Roman
Maps of ancient land use and field boundaries in
Britain by the School of Information Systems at the University of East Anglia,
Report on a geophysical survey by English Heritage.
St. Edmund The Roman walled town and Anglo-Saxon cemetery
Council for British Archaeology
Home page, linking to the Council's electronic journal Internet
Barrow Recent find of an Early Bronze Age burial mound
(2100-1600 BC) in north-west Leicestershire. Site plans and photos of artifacts
including two gold armlets, a copper dagger, and two pottery vessels, from
a barrow near the village of Lockington.
Hundreds of images of Bronze and Iron Age ritual monuments in
the UK, listed by region.
Cadbury Castle Hillfort in Somerset from the Late Iron Age
through the Arthurian period; excavated in the 1960's and 70's, but only
Roman Military Sites of
England Photos, discussion, and links.
Project University of Bristol Department of Archaeology.
Ongoing surveys of Neolithic, Iron Age, Roman, and Early Christian settlements
Hinterland Project University of Birmingham Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) mapping project in Shropshire, around the major
Romano-British town of Viroconium.
ABC of Barbarian tribes From the Danube to the Irish Sea.
and Prehistoric Museum located in Kilvicadownig, Ventry,
Dingle, Co. Kerry, Ireland.
Celtic Art and
Cultures A course syllabus at the University of North
Ceolas: Celtic Music
Folk music from ancient Celtic areas, with an emphasis on modern
of the Celts Based on quotations from literature, myth,
legend, fiction and history.
Gaelic home page
Celtic linguistics, with references to ancient sources.
for Celtic Mythology and Early Irish Literature A page of
links to Gaelic texts and mythology sources, from Richard Stockton College
in Pomona, New Jersey.
Egyptian Papyrus sources:
Well-preserved papyrus documents recovered after 1880 from archaeological
sites around the Nile Delta offer a detailed window into the daily
life of ancient Egyptians from Hellenistic and Roman through Byzantine and
early Islamic times (about 350 BC-AD 1000). Most are in Greek and Coptic,
with later examples in Arabic; subjects range from personal letters to legal,
financial, and religious documents. A recent project, the Advanced Papyrological
Information System (APIS), has linked efforts at several major universities
to conserve, classify, and publish their collections of papyri documents.
Now, as never before, these primary research materials are available to
Carlsberg Papyrus Collection
Significant groups of 1-2nd c.AD texts from the
Tebtunis Temple Library, excavated in 1930, plus material from Hawara and
Edfu, at the Carsten Niebuhr Institute at the University of Copenhagen,
Archive Descriptions and images of 1,373 papyri from
ancient Egypt. A tremendous research site hosted through the Special
Collections Library at Duke University.
Institut fuer Papyrologie
Listings with images by chronological period, from the
collection at the University of Heidelberg, Germany.
Princeton University Library
Papyrus Home Page Besides some high-quality digital images
of fragments from Homer, the New Testament, and ancient tax rolls, this website
contains a descriptive inventory on sources, conservation methods, and contents
of Princeton's papyri, some of which came from Oxyrhynchus in the Egyptian
Fayum. Hosted by the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections.
University of .California
Tebtunis Papyri Over 21,000 papyrus fragments from a single
Egyptian site, Tebtunis, recovered in 1899-1900 by the British archaeologists
Grenfell and Hunt, are at the University of California. This website
from the Bancroft Library at Berkeley features related groups of
correspondence and other documents.
University of Michigan Papyrus
Collection Another large research collection, including
materials from Tebtunis, forming part of the APIS database.
Greek and Latin texts:
American Society of Greek
and Latin Epigraphy A number of well-organized links to
images and texts of inscriptions.
Sourcebook Links to many basic sources compiled by
Paul Halsall, and hosted at Fordham University.
Augustina Well-organized site from Augsburg with a wealth
of ancient and medieval writings arranged chronologically by region (ie.,
the earliest-known French text, Serments de Strassburg, AD 842), with
illustrations of inscriptions.
Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) The major epigraphic
source originally compiled by Mommsen and his associates in the late19th
century, provided by the Seminar for Ancient History at Johann Wolfgang Goethe
University in Frankfurt.
Romanum Latin-English collection of ancient
Latin Inscriptions from the Epigraphic Database at Heidelberg
the Land of Israel Writings from Israel from 330
BC - AD 614 in Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin, and Greek; an ongoing project from
the University of Virginia.
Internet Classics Archive
A searchable Classics archive at MIT.
Curtius The full text of Pliny's Natural History,
plus links to Roman inscriptions (and much else Roman).
Library From the Ad Fontes Academy, texts from dozens
of ancient and Medieval writers, from Apuleius to Vergil.
Oriented towards learning the Latin language, with teaching
programs and readings.
Works by Caesar, Catullus, Cicero, Horace, Livy, Ovid,
Plautus, Servius, and Vergil in Latin (with some English translations) at
the Perseus site from Tufts University.
Latin and Greek texts online, from the University of Washington at
Medieval texts and links:
Paleoanthropology and paleontology:
- Obsidian Sourcing Discusses how tracing obsidian artifacts back to their
geological source is useful to archaeologists, offers details about the
MinOAN obsidian reference collection, and describes how archaeologists
can have obsidian artifacts sourced non-destructively for free.
- Electron Microprobe Analysis in Archaeology Discusses how a major analytical technique in geology can
be used in archaeology, covers the history of this technique in
archaeological research, and offers examples of analyzed artifacts and
- What is Petroarchaeology? Discusses the nature of petroarchaeology and how
petrography can be used to address archaeological questions, describes
topics and tools of the field, and offers a list of suggested readings.
- Geoarchaeology and Archaeological Geology A frequently updated database of studentships, grants,
fellowships, and funding for graduate students wanting to study topics
in geoarchaeology or archaeological geology.
Roman Empire (general):
Many links to Roman Britain and Gaul from the Dalton School
of Columbia University in New York City, with informative site
Curtius Links around the Empire in an encyclopedic
site hosted by Bill Thayer at the University of Kansas.
legio X Gemina
An interesting Roman military history
and reenactment site.
livius.org an excellent
collection of linked descriptive essays on the Roman world
Pomoerium A German on-line
journal with a wide array of links to Classic sources, as well as extensive
A wide array of subjects on Roman and Greek antiquity from
the University of Bologna's Department.of Ancient History (descriptions in
Italian, with some headings in English).
On ancient Roman cooking - recipes from chicken to
A major collection of Ancient Roman resources.
VRoma A very informative
Mediterranean Links to Near Eastern, Greek, and Roman
web sites from St. Olaf College in Minneapolis.
Institute in Reykjavík, Iceland. Árni
Magnússon (1663-1730), an Icelander and professor at the University
of Copenhagen, had a major collection of Medieval Icelandic manuscripts,
now in the Arnamagnæan Foundation. Examples include
the 12 c. AD Íslendingabók (Book of the Icelanders),
and early versions of the Kings Saga, containing Viking history and
Program Recent (1987-90 and 1998-9) excavations at
Fröjel, a large trading center in Gotland, Sweden.
Normanorum English translation of a Medieval manuscript
on Viking Normandy by Dudo of St. Quentin.
of Norway Produced for the Nowegian Ministry of Foreign
Affairs by Nytt fra Norge.
Jorvik Viking Centre
The official, on-the-spot guide to Viking York (Jorvik) in northern
Legends: Sagas and
Sea Kings Links and sagas, including the 13th century epic
of Sigurd the Volsung (dragon-killer).
histoire A collection of Viking and related history links
from the Gymnase Cantonal du Bugnona in
Links For Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and
Webpage Summary and explanations of myths, legends, and
history, including the poetic Edda.
Old Norse Manuscripts in Copenhagen
History and sample images, from the Arnamagnæan
Viking Age A bit of Swedish (and Scandinavic) history, from
Lulea University in Sweden.
illustrated summary of Vikings in England in several parts, including a history
of Viking boats.
Viking Heritage A site
from the Center for Baltic Studies at Gotland University College in
Page A large, useful index f rom Sweden on all things
in the New World Historical summary with maps, covering
the Greenland and Newfoundland colonies.
An article in the Feb. 1998 Scientific American on the
history of Viking ships.
from the Dept. of Germanic Languages, University of Pittsburgh.
Viking Network Web
also from Norway.
West Iceland mythology
and sagas Notes on the immortal skald Snorri Sturluson
(1179-1241), plus sagas from 850-1100 AD, including Egil's Saga, the Edda,
and Laxdela (a Viking tale with a woman in the hero's role).
World of the
Vikings Comprehensive guide to Viking resources on the
Worldwide links in archaeology, history,& classics (by country)
Mostly universities and museums, also libraries, townships, and secondary
schools. Check university and museum sites for conference listings, excavation
reports, and other clues to new and ongoing finds in history and archaeology.
Go to library listings for journals. Also included are a number of
useful remote sensing and map sites.
Museo de La Plata
A large natural science museum with displays in ethnography
and archaeology (northeast Argentina, Andes, and Egyptian civilizations),
as well as zoology and paleontology.
Nacional de Quilmes Links to Charles Darwin and other aspects
of Argentinian science; from the Instituto de Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia
y la Tecnología (IEC)
indigina Brief descriptions with photos of numerous
Amazonian tribal groups: Arara, Bororo, Gaviao, Guajá,
Katukina, Kalina, Marubo, Paracana, Satere-Maue, Surui, Tenharim,
Tikuna, Tucano, Urubu, Waiapi, Wai Wai, Yanomami, Zorós.
Tupi A basic vocabulary of Tupi-Guarani, lingua franca
of the Amazon trade routes; with
e Arqueologia: Publições Ancient history and
archaeology, maintained at the University (UNESP) at Assis.
Brief summary of an upriver tribe
on the Rio Icana, off the Rio Negro, 1500 km from Manaus (in
Museu do Indio
Founded in 1953, the Museum of the Indian has exhibits on 180 indigenous
societies in Brazil. The site provides an introduction to Brazil's museums
as well as links to other cultural sites. A natural
history museum in Belém founded in 1866 and named for primatologist
Emil A. Goeldi (1958-1917), with exhibits on
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi
ethnography, archaeology, botany, and zoology.
Niede Guidon Home page of the archaeologist who discovered
the Paleoindian site at Pedra Furada, and continues to work at
Plantas medicinas from
CIAGRI - the agricultural College at the University of Sao Paulo (Centro
de Informática do Campus "Luiz de Queiroz")
Revista Ciencia Hoje A
science journal with information about several archaeological sites and regions
in Brazil, including Prefeitura, Pirinima, and the Santarém culture
of the Tapajós River.
Information on the National Museum of Brazil, Universidade Federal
do Río de Janiero.
Indios Brasileros Several linked pages (in Portuguese)
on the Xingu tribe, and research by Orlando Villas Boas.
Educational site with many links to tribal descriptions and
remote sensing pages.
Beijing Art Museum
Calligraphy, painting, weaving and embroideries, porcelain,
furniture, ancient coins and artifacts from the Neolithic to the Ming and
Museo Nacional de Colombia
Includes links to Colcultura (Colombian Culture),
the Instituto Colombiano de Antropología, and the Revista Colombiana
Universities in England:
University of Birmingham: Field
Archaeology Unit Current projects in Britain, Italy, Africa,
and the Adriatic.
Bradford Department of Archaeological Sciences: Ancient
metallurgy and modern site survey methods, including topography,
resistivity, ground- probing radar, and magnetometry.
Cambridge - Faculty of Classics
Cambridge - Classics Faculty Library
University of Durham: Department
of Archaeology Current projects and museum.
University of Keele
Department of Classics
Oxford Language and Human Evolution, .
University of Southhampton: Computer
Applications in Archaeology International conferences on
computer hardware, society simulations, GIS, and other quantitative
Staffordshire Computing Archaeology Research Group, with
demos on ground probing radar.
Community websites, news media, and other :
Archaeological Sites Index
Searchable database of 5,000 archaeological sites
BBC: Rome's Neighbors
From Britannia to the Euphrates, a brief summary.
Grid for Learning Links in geography, from a town near Manchester
and the county of Lancashire.
Timeline for Britain.
British Stately Homes and
Houses Travel-oriented website with informative list of mansions
Medieval Urban History Origins and early growth, development of
local government, buildings and fortifications, economy. Comprehensive site
with links, and photos of Castle and half-timbered houses.
Resources and archives on local history in north England from The
Home page On projects in the Azores, with links elsewhere.
Norwich Old City
Links on British history.
Bawsey St. James Presented by Channel 4 Time Team.
History of the Millenium from the Guardian and
Observer. Thought-provoking historical associations, such as when
Henry VIII was marrying wife 5 in 1542, Orellana and his expedition were
encountering the Amazons.
Real Romans Secondary school links in a website from TAG, a UK educational
Scientists, Inventors and
Explorers links to many relevant websites, from the Edmonton Green
Library, in a town near London.
Tourism General outline of history and culture of Ethiopia,
with information on several current ethnography and paleoanthropology projects
, and photos from Addis Ababa, Lalibela, and Axum, as well as the Rift Valley
and wildlife preserves.
A short description on the medieval city of Gondar, with a
Information on several Ethiopian monasteries, including the famous
one at Laibela. The site was created by an Ethiopian student at McGill University
Athens A historical view of the central hilltop sanctuary
of Athens, with the Parthenon and Erectheum temples.
The map to monuments and museums of this ancient coastal metropolis
near Athens is easy to navigate, courtesy of the Hellenic Ministry
of Culture (whose webpages are typically excellent as learning
Cultural Map of
Greece With a comprehensive set of links to many important
archaeological sites (a good starting place).
The islands of Santorini, Ios, and Amorgos all had Neolithic
settlements producing stylized, abstract figurines, then Bronze Age Palace
towns contemporary with Knossos on Crete.
Late 4th century BC tombs from Macedonia, exhibited at the nearby
Crete Links include the fabled Palace of Minos at Knossos
(ca.1800-1200 BC) , the contemporary Minoan-era Palace at Phaistos, and the
Heraklion Museum, as well as a number of sites from the Byzantine
The site of Akrotiri on Thera (Santorini) began by
the 4th millenium BC (Neolithic era). It grew as a trading center to have
a lavish Bronze-Age Palace, then was buried by an earthquake ca. 1600 BC,
perhaps giving rise to the myth of Atlantis.
Thrace: Democritus University
Anthropology Laboratory with links.
an archaeological research institution, funded by the Heritage
Council of Ireland. Several of its projects focus on the late prehistoric
period in Ireland (ca 1200 BC to AD 550), including Tara, North Munster,
Western stone forts, and the Ballyhoura Hills, with sites in the latter region
identified by aerial surveys.
Dungarvan Museum Society
From Dungarvan in Country Waterford, the Museum's site covers
key events in Ireland's past including the famine, military garrisons, and
the town's photographic history, as well as geneology.
Síochána The Garda Historical Society, devoted
to Ireland's National Police Force. See also their
Hunt Museum Archaeology
and History museum, in Limerick.
A page of links, including paths to the Annals of the Four
Masters, Navan Fort, and Irish Coins.
information A resource site on the Great Famine of 1845-1850,
from the Irish National Archives.
King John's Castle
In the heart of Limerick's medieval core, an extended riverside
section is now undergoing restoration. Presented by the Northern Ireland
Mallow Archaeological &
Historical Society (Cumann Ársaiochta is Staire Mhala)
Studies of the area around Mallow in North Cork, with indexes of an annual
journal put out by the Society.
Standing stones and circles, dolmens and forts,
ranging from Carrowmore to Kilclooney, from Tara to Ballycrovane
archaeology listings in Japanese.
Museum of Kenya: Awell-produced and rewarding site, with
information on regional museums as well as the central museum in
in Siberia Research reports by the Archaeological Resource
Facility at the University of California at Berkeley, including newsletter
summaries of findings at the Russian sites of Pokrova (3.1) and Daghestan.(3.2).
South American Languages:
Language Family Index From the Summer Institute of Linguistics
(SIL). This provides detailed language family classifications not only for
the Americas, but also for Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific.
Dos Grupos de Pesquisa No Brasil From the linguistic department
of Human Science and Society (CNPq) in Brazil, this site provides contact
information for various South American linguists.
Native American Language
Center (SSILA) A bibliographic resource from the University
of California at Davis.
[see also language map and summary]
Rainforest in Surinam This multi-media page has
information on Dutch settlement, the Carib culture, ecology, botany, wildlife,
and other aspects of the rainforest.
Von-info from Busigny:
Zimbabwe This site provides detaqils about the town
of Great Zimbabwe, which flourished between AD 1200-1450.
Bulawayo A report by the University of Birmingham,
UK, describing the University's archaeological project at the Old Buluway,
capital of the Ndebele king Lobengula (AD 1870-1881).
Secondary Schools (listed by State) and educational services:
Ironwood High School Exploration Quest.
Salle High School, Pasadena Latin homepage,
with web resource links
Connecticut: Pomperaug Regional
District, Middlebury & Southbury Science Fair: Grade
6 Curriculum links
Naugatuck Geography and Maps, Homework activity
Lockport Township High School. Map and History Links: Social
Studies page for high school students.
High School Ancient Rome Websites, site by
Millard Central Middle School Ancient Cultures; from the
school's Library Media Center.
New York: Dalton
School, Columbia University. Includes Britannia and Gallia, history
web pages for high school.
North Carolina Association
of Educators Archaeology-related Sites; History and Social
Studies Research Tools.
Kent City School District Ancient Rome links
Jackson Education Service District History Online:
Ancient Rome: For middle and secondary school students.
Ellis School, Pittsburgh Links for Latin
West Bend District Exploring landforms in the United
History and Social Studies
Academy OnLine Latin links
KET Distance Learning
History: Ancient Civilizations, Roman empire.
Oz's Kingdom: A History Teacher's Page
Edge Homework help in geography, social studies, and
Universities and Colleges:
University Geoscience web links
Kenosha, Wisconsin Classics and Archaeology courses and
of New York (CUNY) Graduate Center Library Anthropology
and Archaeology resources
Cornell College, Iowa, Department of Classical and Modern Languages
The Emperor Antoninus Pius.
Columbia University Archaeology Web
Eastern New Mexico
El Centro College,
Dallas, Texas World History and Civilization Resources
University, Anthropology Dept. Anthropologically Related
University Post-Colonial Middle Ages course
Wesleyan University, Dept. of Classics Course links.
Louisiana State University Dept. of Horticulture, Baton Rouge. A Sweetpotato
Sampler From germ plasm and DNA to archaeology, everything
you need to know about these cultigens.
State University, Mankato Imaging Radar
State University Sedimentary Geology course:
University, Northfield, Vermont Course on World
Randolph Macon College,
Virginia Warfare in Antiquity (Dept.Classics course, Honors
College, Dallas, Texas Geography 1303 course practice
exam (South American links)
University Prof. John David Pleins, bookmarks, Dept. of
Missouri State University Library resources in
St. Olaf College
in Minneapolis Ancient Mediterranean: Links to Near Eastern,
Greek, and Roman web sites, compiled by Dr. K.C. Hanson.
of Baltimore History 310 course by Prof. Ron Legon
University of California,
Berkeley George and Mary Foster Library; links,
of California, Davis Internet Resources in Classical
Cincinnati Classics course syllabi, by Prof. Mischa Hooker
(CL 110, 111, 112)
of Hawaii Faculty page for Prof. Miriam Stark, with information
on Lower Mekong Archaeological Project.
Illinois at Chicago, Department of Anthropology Selected
Anthropology and Archaeology Resources. Wide-ranging links to primatology
sites, archaeology excavation reports, ethnography, and folklore.
University of Kansas
- Graduate Students in Anthropology Dept. Anthropology
Publications listed on internet.
University of Kansas
- Center for Latin American Studies Bookmarks for Prof.
of Kansas - Ancient Rome Index Compiled by Bill
of Kentucky, Classics Department: Diatoma De Feminis Romanis:
The Vindolanda Letters of Claudia Severa. A unique text from Hadrian's
University of Louisville Ekstrom Library includes a map site.
University of New Orleans
North Carolina, Charlotte: Library Anthropology and Archaeology
of Pennsylvania Dept. of Anthropology, Links by Clark
University of North Texas
Extensive listing of history, archaeology, and
anthropology journals and links.
of Washington H.I.T.L. Human Interface Technology Lab
Wisconsin Deparment of Classics Classics 322 syllabus
Utah State University
Art and Architecture links.
University Central Library Resources for Anthropology and
and Lee University Sociology and Anthropology Resources
on the Internet
Kentucky University Geography 100 course; Fluvial
General and miscellaneous:
Search Engines and basic research tools:
[Some have special listings of archaeology and history journals and
related web resources.]
Archaeology links by subject and region, compiled by Kris
Ancient and Classical History, compiled by N.S. Gill. (site
was formerly the Mining Co.)
In-depth searches for historical links and references.
of archaeology topics; hosted at University of Connecticut.
List of journals .
History Sourcebook Links to sources compiled by Paul
Halsall, and hosted at Fordham University.
Dogpile Combines a number
of search engines.
Google A relatively fast
search engine with wide-ranging search powers, and the most used.
HotBot (now, part of
the Lycos Network.)
Infoseek Main search page
Lycos Main search page.
Ancient and Medieval History topics.
Comprehensive, relatively up-to-date searches.
Yahoo Main search
Anthropology and Archaeology Journals.
Homework page in science, with focus on geography.
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