Excavations at the Viking settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland by Helge Ingstad and Anne Stine in 1960 showed foundations of eight sod buildings, including a main dwelling, a bathhouse of a type known from the Norse occupation of Greenland, and a blacksmith shop. Iron nail fragments were found in the house, and pieces of iron together with slag were found in the smithy. Other definite Norse artifacts include a soapstone spindle whorl similar to those in use in Greenland and Iceland during the 11th century, and a bronze-ringed pin.
The early 11th century settlement includes the following features, shown on the plan: 1: the large house. 2-7: other structures, some with hearths and cooking pits. 8: the smithy. 9: a possible charcoal kiln. 10-11: large cooking pits.A number of boat sheds were also found. Radiocarbon samples from several site areas produced dates clustering around AD 1000, which accords with the historic evidence of the sagas.
[Fig.1: plan of Viking settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows. Newfoundland (after Ingstad 1974).]
[For more details, see Vikings in Vinland.]
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